Native Video on the Web

TIL about the HLS video format:

HLS stands for HTTP Live Streaming. It’s an adaptive bitrate streaming protocol developed by Apple. One of those sentences to casually drop at any party. Äh. Back on track: HLS allows you to specify a playlist with multiple video sources in different resolutions. Based on available bandwidth these video sources can be switched and allow adaptive playback.

This is an interesting journey where the engineering team behind Kitchen Stories wanted to switch away from the Vimeo player (160 kB), but still use Vimeo as a video host because they provide direct video links with a Pro plan. Instead, they are using the native <video> element, a library for handling HLS, and a wrapper element to give them a little bonus UX.

This video stuff is hard to keep up with! There is another new format called AV1 that is apparently a big deal as YouTube and Netflix are both embracing it. Andrey Sitnik wrote about it here:

Even though AV1 codec is still considered experimental, you can already leverage its high-quality, low-bitrate features for a sizable chunk for your web audience (users with current versions of Chrome and Firefox). Of course, you would not want to leave users for other browsers hanging, but the attributes for <video> and <source> tags make implementing this logic easy, and in pure HTML, you don’t need to go at length to detect user agents with JavaScript.

That doesn’t even mention HLS, but I suppose that’s because HSL is a streaming protocol, which still needs to stream in some sort of format.

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CSS Algorithms

I wouldn’t say the term “CSS algorithm” has widespread usage yet, but I think Lara Schenck might be onto something. She defines it as:

a well-defined declaration or set of declarations that produces a specific styling output

So a CSS algorithm isn’t really a component where there is some parent element and whatever it needs inside, but a CSS algorithm could involve components. A CSS algorithm isn’t just some tricky key/value pair or calculated output — but it could certainly involve those things.

The way I understand it is that they are little mini systems. In a recent post, she describes a situation involving essentially two fixed header bars and needing to deal with them in different situations. In this example, the page can be in different states (e.g. a logged-in state has a position: fixed; bar), and that affects not only the header but the content area as well. Dealing with all that together is a CSS algorithm. It’s probably the way we all work in CSS already, but now have a term to describe it. This particular example involves some CSS custom properties, a state-based class, two selectors, and a media query. Classic front-end developer stuff.

Lara is better at explaining what she means though. You should read her initial blog post, main blog post, collection of examples, and talk on the subject.

She’ll be at PPK’s CSS Day in June (hey, it’s on our conferences list!), and the idea has clearly stirred up some thoughts from him.

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Extracting Text from Content Using HTML Slot, HTML Template and Shadow DOM

Chapter names in books, quotes from a speech, keywords in an article, stats on a report — these are all types of content that could be helpful to isolate and turn into a high-level summary of what’s important.

For example, have you seen the way Business Insider provides an article’s key points before getting into the content?

That’s the sort of thing we’re going to do, but try to extract the high points directly from the article using HTML Slot, HTML Template and Shadow DOM.

These three titular specifications are typically used as part of Web Components — fully functioning custom element modules meant to be reused in webpages.

Now, what we aim to do, i.e. text extraction, doesn’t need custom elements, but it can make use of those three technologies.

There is a more rudimentary approach to do this. For example, we could extract text and show the extracted text on a page with some basic script without utilizing slot and template. So why use them if we can go with something more familiar?

The reason is that using these technologies permits us a preset markup code (also optionally, style or script) for our extracted text in HTML. We’ll see that as we proceed with this article.

Now, as a very watered-down definition of the technologies we’ll be using, I’d say:

  • A template is a set of markup that can be reused in a page.
  • A slot is a placeholder spot for a designated element from the page.
  • A shadow DOM is a DOM tree that doesn’t really exist on the page till we add it using script.

We’ll see them in a little more depth once we get into coding. For now, what we’re going to make is an article that follows with a list of key points from the text. And, you probably guessed it, those key points are extracted from the article text and compiled into the key points section.

See the Pen
Text Extraction with HTML Slot and HTML Template
by Preethi Sam (@rpsthecoder)
on CodePen.

The key points are displayed as a list with a design in between the points. So, let’s first create a template for that list and designate a place for the list to go.

<article><!-- Article content --></article> <!-- Section where the extracted keypoints will be displayed -->
<section id='keyPointsSection'> <h2>Key Points:</h2> <ul><!-- Extracted key points will go in here --></ul>
</section> <!-- Template for the key points list -->
<template id='keyPointsTemplate'> <li><slot name='keyPoints'></slot></li> <li style="text-align: center;">&#x2919;&mdash;&#x291a;</li>
</template>

What we’ve got is a semantic <section> with a <ul> where the list of key points will go. Then we have a <template> for the list items that has two <li> elements: one with a <slot> placeholder for the key points from the article and another with a centered design.

The layout is arbitrary. What’s important is placing a <slot> where the extracted key points will go. Whatever’s inside the <template> will not be rendered on the page until we add it to the page using script.

Further, the markup inside <template> can be styled using inline styles, or CSS enclosed by <style>:

<template id='keyPointsTemplate'> <li><slot name='keyPoints'></slot></li> <li style="text-align: center;">&#x2919;&mdash;&#x291a;</li> <style> li{/* Some style */} </style>
</template>

The fun part! Let’s pick the key points from the article. Notice the value of the name attribute for the <slot> inside the <template> (keyPoints) because we’ll need that.

<article> <h1>Bears</h1> <p>Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae. <span><span slot='keyPoints'>They are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans</span></span>. Although only eight species of bears <!-- more content --> and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. <span><span slot='keyPoints'>Bears are found on the continents of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia</span></span>.<!-- more content --></p> <p>While the polar bear is mostly carnivorous, <!-- more content -->. Bears use shelters, such as caves and logs, as their dens; <span><span slot='keyPoints'>Most species occupy their dens during the winter for a long period of hibernation</span></span>, up to 100 days.</p> <!-- More paragraphs --> </article>

The key points are wrapped in a <span> carrying a slot attribute value (“keyPoints“) matching the name of the <slot> placeholder inside the <template>.

Notice, too, that I’ve added another outer <span> wrapping the key points.

The reason is that slot names are usually unique and are not repeated, because one <slot> matches one element using one slot name. If there’re more than one element with the same slot name, the <slot> placeholder will be replaced by all those elements consecutively, ending in the last element being the final content at the placeholder.

So, if we matched that one single <slot> inside the <template> against all of the <span> elements with the same slot attribute value (our key points) in a paragraph or the whole article, we’d end up with only the last key point present in the paragraph or the article in place of the <slot>.

That’s not what we need. We need to show all the key points. So, we’re wrapping the key points with an outer <span> to match each of those individual key points separately with the <slot>. This is much more obvious by looking at the script, so let’s do that.

const keyPointsTemplate = document.querySelector('#keyPointsTemplate').content;
const keyPointsSection = document.querySelector('#keyPointsSection > ul');
/* Loop through elements with 'slot' attribute */
document.querySelectorAll('[slot]').forEach((slot)=>{ let span = slot.parentNode.cloneNode(true); span.attachShadow({ mode: 'closed' }).appendChild(keyPointsTemplate.cloneNode(true)); keyPointsSection.appendChild(span);
});

First, we loop through every <span> with a slot attribute and get a copy of its parent (the outer <span>). Note that we could also loop through the outer <span> directly if we’d like, by giving them a common class value.

The outer <span> copy is then attached with a shadow tree (span.attachShadow) made up of a clone of the template’s content (keyPointsTemplate.cloneNode(true)).

This “attachment” causes the <slot> inside the template’s list item in the shadow tree to absorb the inner <span> carrying its matching slot name, i.e. our key point.

The slotted key point is then added to the key points section at the end of the page (keyPointsSection.appendChild(span)).

This happens with all the key points in the course of the loop.

That’s really about it. We’ve snagged all of the key points in the article, made copies of them, then dropped the copies into the list template so that all of the key points are grouped together providing a nice little CliffsNotes-like summary of the article.

Here’s that demo once again:

See the Pen
Text Extraction with HTML Slot and HTML Template
by Preethi Sam (@rpsthecoder)
on CodePen.

What do you think of this technique? Is it something that would be useful in long-form content, like blog posts, news articles, or even Wikipedia entries? What other use cases can you think of?

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The Client/Server Rendering Spectrum

I’ve definitely been guilty of thinking about rendering on the web as a two-horse race. There is Server-Side Rendering (SSR, like this WordPress site is doing) and Client-Side Rendering (CSR, like a typical React app). Both are full of advantages and disadvantages. But, of course, the conversation is more nuanced. Just because an app is SSR doesn’t mean it doesn’t do dynamic JavaScript-powered things. And just because an app is CSR doesn’t mean it can’t leverage any SSR at all.

It’s a spectrum! Jason Miller and Addy Osmani paint that picture nicely in Rendering on the Web.

My favorite part of the article is the infographic table they post at the end of it. Unfortunately, it’s a PNG. So I took a few minutes and <table>-ized it, in case that’s useful to anyone.

See the Pen
The Client/Server Rendering Spectrum
by Chris Coyier (@chriscoyier)
on CodePen.

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Refactoring Tunnels

We’ve been writing a lot about refactoring CSS lately, from how to take a slow and methodical approach to getting some quick wins. As a result, I’ve been reading a ton about this topic and somehow stumbled upon this post by Harry Roberts about refactoring and how to mitigate the potential risks that come with it:

Refactoring can be scary. On a sufficiently large or legacy application, there can be so much fundamentally wrong with the codebase that many refactoring tasks will run very deep throughout the whole project. This puts a lot of pressure on developers, especially considering that this is their chance to “get it right this time”. This can feel debilitating: “Where do I start?” “How long is this going to take?” “How will I know if I’m doing the right thing?”

Harry then comes up with this metaphor of a refactoring tunnel where it’s really easy to find yourself stuck in the middle of a refactor and without any way out of it. He argues that we should focus on small, manageable pieces instead of trying to tackle everything at once:

Resist the temptation to refactor anything that runs right the way throughout the project. Instead, identify smaller and more manageable tasks: tasks that have a much smaller surface area, and therefore a much shorter Refactoring Tunnel.

These tasks can still aim toward a larger and more total goal but can be realised in much safer and shorter timeframes. Want to move all of your classes from BEM to BEM(IT)? Sure, but maybe just implement it on the nav first.

This way feels considerably slower, for sure, but there’s so much less risk involved.

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The Bottleneck of the Web

Steve Souders, “JavaScript Dominates Browser CPU”:

Ten years ago the network was the main bottleneck. Today, the main bottleneck is JavaScript. The amount of JavaScript on pages is growing rapidly (nearly 5x in the last 7 years). In order to keep pages rendering and feeling fast, we need to focus on JavaScript CPU time to reduce blocking the browser main thread.

Alex Russell, describing a prototype of “Never-Slow Mode” in Chrome:

… blocks large scripts, sets budgets for certain resource types (script, font, css, images), turns off document.write(), clobbers sync XHR, enables client-hints pervasively, and buffers resources without Content-Length set.

Craig Hockenberry, posting an idea to the WebKit bug tracker:

Without limits, there is no incentive for a JavaScript developer to keep their codebase small and dependencies minimal. It’s easy to add another framework, and that framework adds another framework, and the next thing you know you’re loading tens of megabytes of data just to display a couple hundred kilobytes of content. …

The situation I’m envisioning is that a site can show me any advertising they want as long as they keep the overall size under a fixed amount, say one megabyte per page. If they work hard to make their site efficient, I’m happy to provide my eyeballs.

It’s easy to point a finger at frameworks and third-party scripts for large amounts of JavaScript. If you’re interested in hearing more about the size of frameworks, you might enjoy me and Dave discussing it with Jason Miller.

And speaking of third-parties, Patrick Hulce created Third Party Web: “This document is a summary of which third-party scripts are most responsible for excessive JavaScript execution on the web today.”

Sometimes name-and-shame is an effective tactic to spark change.

Addy Osmani writes about an ESLint rule that prohibits particular packages, of which you could use to prevent usage of known-to-be-huge packages. So if someone tries to load the entirety of lodash or moment.js, it can be stopped at the linting level.

Tim Kadlec ties the threads together very well in “Limiting JavaScript?” If your gut reaction on this is that JavaScript is being unfairly targeted as a villain, Tim acknowledges that:

One common worry I saw voiced was “if JavaScript, why not other resources too?”. It’s true; JavaScript does get picked on a lot though it’s not without reason. Byte for byte, JavaScript is the most significant detriment to performance on the web, so it does make sense to put some focus on reducing the amount we use.

However, the point is valid. JavaScript may be the biggest culprit more often than not, but it’s not the only one.

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Why I Write CSS in JavaScript

I’m never going to tell you that writing your CSS in CSS (or some syntactic preprocessor) is a bad idea. I think you can be perfectly productive and performant without any tooling at all. But, I also think writing CSS in JavaScript is a good idea for component-based styles in codebases that build all their components with JavaScript anyway.

In this article, Max Stoiber focuses on why to write CSS in JavaScript rather than how to do it. There is one reason that resonates strongly with me, and that’s confidence. This is what styling confidence means to me.

  • Anyone on a team can work on styling a component without any fear of unintended side effects.
  • There is no pressure to come up with perfect names that will work now and forever.
  • There is no worry about the styles needing to be extremely re-usable or that they play friendly with anything else. These styles will only be used when needed and not any other time.
  • There is an obvious standard to where styles are placed in the codebase.
  • CSS in JavaScript isn’t the only answer to those things, but as Max connects to other posts on the topic, it can lead to situations where good choices happen naturally.

    There are some reasons why I don’t buy into it. Performance is one of them, like choosing CSS-in-JS is some automatic performance win. Part of the problem (and I’m guilty of doing it right here) is that CSS-in-JS is a wide scope of solutions. I’ve generally found there is no big performance wins in CSS-in-JS (more likely the opposite), but that’s irrelevant if we’re talking about something like CSS modules with the styles extracted and linked up like any other CSS.

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    CSS Triangles, Multiple Ways

    I like Adam Laki’s Quick Tip: CSS Triangles because it covers that ubiquitous fact about front-end techniques: there are always many ways to do the same thing. In this case, drawing a triangle can be done:

    • with border and a collapsed element
    • with clip-path: polygon()
    • with transform: rotate() and overflow: hidden
    • with glyphs like ▼

    I’d say that the way I’ve typically done triangles the most over the years is with the border trick, but I think my favorite way now is using clip-path. Code like this is fairly clear, understandable, and maintainable to me: clip-path: polygon(50% 0, 0 100%, 100% 100%); Brain: Middle top! Bottom right! Bottom left! Triangle!

    My 2nd Place method goes to an option that didn’t make Adam’s list: inline <svg>! This kind of thing is nearly just as brain-friendly: <polygon points="0,0 100,0 50,100"/>.

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    Learning to Learn

    There’s been a lot of talk recently about whether or not you need a degree to be in tech (spoiler: you don’t). But please don’t take this to mean you don’t need any kind of education to be in tech, because by not getting a degree, you’re opting to replace the imposed learning structure of an academy with learning on your own.

    Academic background or not, technical education doesn’t stop once you get a job. On the contrary: nothing in tech stays in one place, and the single most valuable skill you can possess to remain employable over time is learning how to learn.

    Identifying holes

    You’re all ready to go, ready to challenge yourself, learn what you can, and grow. But where do you start? Sometimes people rely on a more formal education simply because someone is there, guiding your path.

    When you’re learning on your own, this part can sometimes be tough — you don’t know what you don’t know. If you’re starting from scratch, learning web development or computer science, here are some resources that might help:

    There are also times when you know what you need to learn, but you have to level up. In this case, I have some strategies on how to organize yourself in the next section.

    Possible strategies

    You absolutely do not to be as formal in your approach to learning as I am. I used to be a college professor, and so I still organize my own learning as though I’m teaching. I even still use a paper planner designed for teachers. I’ll show you how I do it in case it’s helpful. A few years back I taught myself ES2015/ES6, so I’ll use that as an example. Structure like this is good for some and not good for others, so do what works for you.

    If there’s an API I’m trying to learn, I’ll go to the main documentation page (if there is one), and list each of the things I’m trying to learn. Then I’ll divide the sections into what I think are manageable chunks, and spread the sections over my schedule, usually shooting for about a half hour a day. I do this with the understanding that some days I won’t find the time, and others, I’ll dig in for longer. Typically I aim for at least 2.5 hours of learning a week, because that pace seems reasonable to me.

    ES2015 main
    The list of ES2015 features I used when I was learning

    Then I take all of those features, write them out, and estimate how much time I’ll need for each one. Here’s an example where I wrote out all the things I needed to learn. The yellow numbers on the side are my time estimates in half hour units.

    checklist of ES6 features

    You can also do this with course materials from an online workshop, writing down the sections and breaking them into chunks to go over every day. I really enjoy Frontend Masters for long form learning like this, as well as Egghead and courses by Wes Bos.

    At this point, I’ll break those pieces down and schedule them. The teacher planner allows me to divide my days into the different themes I’m focusing on and put a little in each day. You can see in the first screenshot that I was learning a bit, mentoring a bit, and writing and building what I was learning each day. This kind of input/output really helped me solidify the concepts as I was digging into ES2015/ES6.

    example of scheduling by theme, subjects broken down by day
    example of scheduling by theme, subjects broken down by day

    I try not to schedule too far out because I’m bound to drop something here and there, or I might dive further one day than I was planning to. I keep the schedules flexible enough to adjust for these inevitable inconsistencies. This also allows me to not get too demotivated. If I feel I’m off-track, the next week is another opportunity to get back on.

    Again, you don’t have to be as formal as I am, and there are so many ways to be effective. Find what works for you. I would make a small suggestion that you’re taking a look at the table of contents for those API docs now and again, mostly because then you’re aware of any gaps in your knowledge that you’re not filling.

    Setting aside time

    Setting aside time can be challenging with all of our busy schedules, but it’s critical. If you look at your week, how much time do you have? Learning won’t happen unless you purposefully devote time for it. It needn’t be a ton of time. If you’re a more habit-driven kind of person, you can set up a daily schedule. If you’re the kind of person who learns better head down and you have an existing job, then you might have to give up some Sunday afternoons, or possibly some time after work now and again. Most of us need a bit of both. ☺️

    If you’re socially motivated, you might want to find a study buddy. Is there someone at work who has similar goals? Maybe going to coding meetups can help keep you on track. Emma Wedekind also builds Coding Coach, where you can have guided mentorship sessions.

    Practice

    At the end of the day, it’s going to come down to practice. If you read about Cognitive Load Theory (I highly recommend the book Cognitive Load Theory if you want to learn about this), you’ll see that the old “practice makes perfect” adage has some bite to it.

    diagram showing that practice helps us store long term ideas
    Information Processing Model (how we learn) – Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin’s cognitive load theory, 1968.

    I also really like this quote from Zed Shaw’s Learn Python the Hard Way.

    Do Not Copy-Paste
    You must type each of these exercises in, manually. If you copy and paste, you might as well just not even do them. The point of these exercises is to train your hands, your brain, and your mind in how to read, write, and see code. If you copy-paste, you are cheating yourself out of the effectiveness of the lessons.

    I also love this quote from Art and Fear, and bring it up frequently as it’s been a guiding light for me:

    The ceramics teacher announced on opening day that he was dividing the class into two groups. All those on the left side of the studio, he said, would be graded solely on the quantity of work they produced, all those on the right solely on its quality. His procedure was simple: on the final day of class he would bring in his bathroom scales and weigh the work of the “quantity” group: fifty pounds of pots rated an “A”, forty pounds a “B”, and so on. Those being graded on “quality”, however, needed to produce only one pot —albeit a perfect one —to get an “A”. Well, came grading time and a curious fact emerged: the works of highest quality were all produced by the group being graded for quantity. It seems that while the “quantity” group was busily churning out piles of work—and learning from their mistakes —the “quality” group had sat theorizing about perfection, and in the end had little more to show for their efforts than grandiose theories and a pile of dead clay.

    Learning modalities

    Truly there are many different learning modalities, and combining them can even be helpful. Sometimes I will sit and practice refactoring code from other languages into JavaScript (this is a pretty old project now), or reverse engineer things to learn. I like reverse engineering because people tend to problem-solve in different ways. This allows me to peek inside other people’s heads and see how they approach things. I even have a private collection on CodePen where I collect other people’s work that I think can benefit me and my learning.

    Personally, I think there’s nothing more motivating than building. You can actually learn a metric ton just by building things.

    Storytime: Many years ago, I was at a conference with a few people who worked on the SVG spec, including the inventor of SVG himself. I was completely unknown at the time, but had been churning out tons of SVG animations that were wildly unpopular for a few years. We got on the subject of a certain behavior that was in the spec. I mentioned, that yes, it should work that way but unfortunately Firefox had x behavior and Chrome had y.

    No one in the group knew this, and it was the first time I realized that all those silly playful things I was building were actually educating me; that I knew practical, real-life edge cases even though I hadn’t sought them out in a formal manner. I was so excited! I didn’t plan to become an SVG expert — it snuck up on me as I enjoyed myself, building things to relieve stress and play.

    This is good news! You can learn so much by creating things you think are fun. I like to learn for a bit, and then practice what I learned by making something, just to make sure I solidify the concepts.

    You may find you learn the most by teaching. If you do have a person you can mentor, it can actually benefit you, too. Writing technical posts or helping with documentation can help you learn something concretely as well.

    Cognitive Load Theory

    The book I cited earlier, Cognitive Load Theory, has this great section breaking down learning modalities and what they require. A central theme to the book is discussing moving information from a source into our own minds, and that there are certain capabilities and limitations affected by design characteristics of the learning structure and our own cognition.

    • Intrinsic load is created by the difficulty of the materials.
    • Extraneous load is created by the design characteristics of the type of education and materials.
    • Germane load is the amount of invested mental effort.

    The chart below explores effects of different ways that we learn, and what the primary cognitive load would be of the three listed above.

    table of human cognition and learning modalities
    From Cognitive Load Theory

    This kind of meta-understanding of what it takes to learn might be helpful to you in that you might find you have less cognitive load in one learning modality versus another. You may also find that you can cut yourself some slack when one topic with more germane load takes you longer to understand than another that’s mostly memorization.

    Know that learning styles do affect our ability to comprehend things, and reducing barriers for yourself is key. Do you keep studying at a cafe where there’s a lot of noise and distraction? Consider that your lack of focus might have more to do with the setting than your ability to process the materials.

    One more note on this: learning is hard, and it’s humbling. It’s exciting too, but please don’t feel alone if you struggle, or if you need to repeat something multiple times to really get it. Even after taking care of cognitive leaks, expanding knowledge is not necessarily easy, but does pay off in dividends.

    Lifelong learners

    By choosing to be a developer, you are choosing to learn. This is amazing. Our field not only values our knowledge, but we can stave off boredom because it doesn’t stagnate. My suggestion is to consider these tips a buffet table. There’s so much you can do, so many tools you can use. You don’t need to learn everything and no one knows absolutely everything. It can feel overwhelming, but try to view it less like a race to the finish and more like a continuous journey.

    Remember: no one was born knowing any of this. Even the experts you know started at zero. There’s nothing stopping you from becoming their peer if that’s your goal. Or simply learning enough to get the job done if that’s what you need.

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    CSS Remedy

    There is a 15-year history of CSS resets. In fact, a “reset” isn’t really the right word. Tantek Çelik’s take in 2004 was called “undohtml.css” and it wasn’t until a few years later when Eric Meyer called his version a reset, that the word became the default term. When Normalize came around, it called itself a reset alternative, which felt right, because it wasn’t trying to obliterate all styles, but instead bring the base styles that browsers provide in their User Agent Stylesheet in line with each other.

    We’ve taken a romp through this history before in Reboot, Resets, and Reasoning. Every single take on this — let’s call them “base” stylesheets — has a bit of a different angle. How much does it try to preserve the UA defaults? How opinionated does it get? How far back does it consider for browser support?

    Along comes CSS Remedy (they say it’s not ready for usage), with yet another different spin:

    Sets CSS properties or values to what they would be if the CSSWG were creating the CSS today, from scratch, and didn’t have to worry about backwards compatibility.

    Fascinating to think about.

    CSS Remedy re-draws the line for what is opinionated and what isn’t. I’d say that something like * { box-sizing: border-box; } is a fairly strong opinion for a base stylesheet to have. No UA stylesheet does this, so it’s applying a blanket rule everywhere just because it’s desirable. It’s definitely desirable! It’s just opinionated.

    But not having border-box be the default is considered a CSS mistake. So if CSS Remedy is what a UA stylesheet would be if we were starting from scratch, border-box isn’t opinionated; it’s the new default.

    Sadly, we probably can never have a fresh UA stylesheet in browsers, because the danger of breaking sites is so high. If Firefox shipped some new modernized UA stylesheet that was tastefully done and appears to be nice, but only until you browse around the billion websites that weren’t built to handle the new CSS being applied to them, them people would blame Firefox — and not incorrectly. Gracefully handling legacy code is a massive strength of the web and something that holds us back. It’s more the former than the latter, though.

    It’s been fun watching Jen think through and gather thoughts on stuff like this though:

    I agree! That little space below images has confounded an absolute ton of people. It’s easy enough to fix, but it being the fault of vertical-align is a bit silly and a great candidate for fixing in what would be a new UA stylesheet.

    I tossed the in-progress version into the comparison tool:

    See the Pen
    HTML Kitchen-sink
    by Chris Coyier (@chriscoyier)
    on CodePen.

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